Modern smartphones use electromagnetic induction to deliver electric energy wirelessly from the charger to the device being charged. This occurs when a magnetic field generates electrical power in a control loop that interacts with the magnetic field.
You need a phone that supports wireless charging in addition to a wireless charger that is compatible with wireless charging to function. Both the charger and the phone will have copper coils inside them.
A continuously fluctuating magnetic field reacts with the copper coil inside the smartphone when you place it on a wireless charger, creating an electric current. The battery is subsequently charged using the generated electric current.
Does wireless charging damage battery?
Regardless of the charger you use, all smartphone batteries will begin to weaken as soon as they are charged. After charging for some time, the majority of smartphone batteries will be able to store 20% less energy.
This is why you'll realize that when you first acquire a phone, it may run longer on a full charge than it can a year later, where you might need to charge it more frequently.
So, wireless charging won't harm your battery any more than other methods of charging.